Alternative Solution Using Atomic Grouping

In the above example, we could easily reduce the amount of backtracking to a very low level by better specifying what we wanted. But that is not always possible in such a straightforward manner. In that case, you should use atomic grouping to prevent the regex engine from backtracking.
Using atomic grouping, the above regex becomes ^(?>(.*?,){11})P. Everything between (?>) is treated as one single token by the regex engine, once the regex engine leaves the group. Because the entire group is one token, no backtracking can take place once the regex engine has found a match for the group. If backtracking is required, the engine has to backtrack to the regex token before the group (the caret in our example). If there is no token before the group, the regex must retry the entire regex at the next position in the string.
Let's see how ^(?>(.*?,){11})P is applied to 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. The caret matches at the start of the string and the engine enters the atomic group. The star is lazy, so the dot is initially skipped. But the comma does not match 1, so the engine backtracks to the dot. That's right: backtracking is allowed here. The star is not possessive, and is not immediately enclosed by an atomic group. That is, the regex engine did not cross the closing parenthesis of the atomic group. The dot matches 1, and the comma matches too. {11} causes further repetition until the atomic group has matched 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,.
Now, the engine leaves the atomic group. Because the group is atomic, all backtracking information is discarded and the group is now considered a single token. The engine now tries to match P to the 1 in the 12th field. This fails.
So far, everything happened just like in the original, troublesome regular expression. Now comes the difference. Pfails to match, so the engine backtracks. But the atomic group made it forget all backtracking positions. The match attempt at the start of the string fails immediately.
That is what atomic grouping and possessive quantifiers are for: efficiency by disallowing backtracking. The most efficient regex for our problem at hand would be ^(?>((?>[^,\r\n]*),){11})P, since possessive, greedy repetition of the star is faster than a backtracking lazy dot. If possessive quantifiers are available, you can reduce clutter by writing ^(?>([^,\r\n]*+,){11})P.
If you test the final solution in RegexBuddy's debugger, you'll see that it needs the same 34 steps to match the 11 fields and 1 step to discover that P can't be matched. But because of the atomic group, backtracking it all takes only a single step.

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